In regions where water is either scarce or not connected to a municipal supply, rainwater harvesting can provide the critical water needed for fire protection.
In most cases, the requirements of fire suppression sprinkler system design are dictated by various Building Codes. Chiefly in the United States, the National Fire Protection Association – Sprinkler Systems, commonly called NFPA, is the standard for design and code approval.
Design of sprinkler systems has three parts: determination of the water volume needed, the design of sprinkler distribution and the design of the storage and pumping system necessary for sprinkler operation. It is important to note that the final design will need the approval of the authority having jurisdiction before construction begins. This may be the local building inspector, fire chief, insurance underwriter, local or state code official, who may possibly modify the code requirements. So it is best to get his involvement early in the design process.
Stored water flows backward into the gutter system and overflows the gutters to form a shield of water. While forest fires are not as common in all countries, states, and providences, they are in the arid western part of the United States and rainwater could serve as protection for some homes located in heavily forested areas in the event of a fire.